Antidepressant Medications (Info about the drugs for depression)
Antidepressant medications or antidepressants are medications which are primarily used for the treatment, management and prevention of a wide range of mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. They were first developed and used back in the 1950s and are still being used today because of their effectiveness in managing and treating the symptoms of many mental illnesses. To read about the depression disorder click her
History of Antidepressant Medications
Scientists first discovered antidepressants in 1957 by accident, when they discovered the antidepressant effects of iproniazid, a medication which was primarily used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Today, antidepressants have come a long way and most of those prescribed by physicians offer much better results with fewer and less undesirable side effects.
How Antidepressant Medications Work
Antidepressants work by increasing the concentration of one or more types of neurotransmitters in the brain. Some of the neurotransmitters that are affected by antidepressants include serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Most antidepressants need to be taken on a regular basis for an extended period of time for them to be effective for the treatment of the condition of a patient, although there are some antidepressants which may be taken on an as-needed basis.
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Types of Antidepressant Medications
There are many types of antidepressants that are marketed and prescribed today and they include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs; serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or SNRIs; noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants or NaSSAs; norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or NRIs; norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors; selective serotonin reuptake enhancers; norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitors; tricyclic antidepressants; and monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs.
1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs
SSRIs are antidepressants which are often used as the first line of treatment for depression because of their low toxicity and their favorable side-effect profile. SSRIs work by preventing the reuptake and maintaining high levels of serotonin in the brain, which can in turn, help in the effective treatment of depression.
Some of the most commonly used SSRIs today include: citalopram or Celexa or Cipramil; escitalopram or Lexapro or Cipralex; fluoxetine or Prozac; fluvoxamine or Luvox; paroxetine or Paxil; sertraline or Zoloft; and vilazodone or Viibryd. Compared to other types of antidepressants such as the tricyclic antidepressants and the MAOIs, SSRIs cause fewer and less serious side effects. Some of the side effects that SSRIs may cause include drowsiness, nervousness or anxiety, insomnia, dry mouth, a decrease in appetite, sexual problems and weight gain.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors or SNRIs
SNRIs are a newer form of antidepressants which work on both serotonin and norepinephrine. By increasing or maintaining the high levels of these two neurotransmitters or brain chemicals, these antidepressants are able to help in the treatment and prevention of depression and several other mental disorders.
Some of the commonly used SNRIs include: desvenlafaxine or Pristiq; duloxetine or Cymbalta; milnacipran or Ixel; and venlafaxine or Effexor. The side effects of SNRIs are similar to those of SSRIs, although SNRIs have been studied to cause a withdrawal symptom which is why physicians often taper the dosage of a patient instead of discontinuing the use of the drug abruptly.
3. Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressants or NaSSAs
NaSSAs are also a newer class of antidepressants which work through increasing norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain by blocking presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors as well as certain serotonin receptors. Some examples of NaSSAs include mianserin or Tolvon and mirtazapine or Remeron.
NaSSAs have been known to cause several side effects such as weight gain, increased appetite and drowsiness.
4. Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors or NRIs
NRIs are antidepressants that work by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter. This ensures higher levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.
NRIs are primarily prescribed for the treatments of various mental disorders such as ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy and mood disorders. Some examples of NRIs include atomoxetine or Strattera, mazindol or Mazanor, viloxazine or Vivalan and reboxetine or Edronax.
5. Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors or NDRIs
NDRIs are antidepressant medications which act as reuptake inhibitors for norepinephrine and dopamine. They block the action of both the norepinephrine transporter and the dopamine transporter. One of the most commonly used NDRIs today would be bupropion or Wellbutrin.
6. Norepinephrine-Dopamine Disinhibitors or NDDIs
NDDIs are antidepressants which block the certain serotonin receptors that normally act to inhibit the release of norepinephrine and dopamine. NDDIs can also be used as anxiolytics or anti-anxiety medications. An example of an NDDI would be agomelatine or Valdoxan.
Antianxiety Medications (Info about medicine for treatment of anxiety) Click here to read about it
Antidepressant Medications (Info about the drugs for depression) Click here to read about it
Antipsychotic Medicine (Information about psychotic medication)Click here to read about it
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Source Text is taken directly and translated by us from the norwegian health institute named mental helse